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第二届中美关系的人文基础与跨文化交际国际学术研讨会:分论坛一、二、三、四

 

分论坛一:美国语言教育研究

 

从语言旗舰项目看美国外语教育政策

国防科技大学文理学院 焦新平

 

美国语言旗舰项目领导全国设计、支持和实施高级语言教育。通过联邦政府、教育和商业之间的创新合作,项目旨在培养将在下一代全球专业人士中占据一席之地的学生,在对美国竞争力和美国安全至关重要的多种语言中为他们提供更高的流利程度。语言旗舰是美国外语和文化教学的突破,旨在帮助个人达到阿拉伯语,汉语,印地语,韩语,波斯语,葡萄牙语,俄语,斯瓦希里语,土耳其语和乌尔都语等重要语言的高级水平。语言旗舰还支持语言教学中的新概念,包括创新大学和中小学的合作,开发阿拉伯语、中文和葡萄牙语的K-16管道课程。语言旗舰项目被授予在语言教育领域突出的美国大学。项目体现了美国外语教育政策的革新,也是美国应对21世纪国家安全挑战和提升国家综合竞争力的重要手段。

 

Authentic materials in Chinese classroom: A survey study on learner perception

肯尼索州立大学黄莎

 

Authentic materials (AM) refer to language data produced in the process of real-life communication rather than for language teaching purposes. Many second language scholars believe AM bring benefits to language classrooms. However, there are concerns that due to difficulty vocabulary and structures contained in AM, using them may frustrate or demotivate learners. Chinese is one of the most difficult languages for American learners to learn, which may make it more challenging to incorporate AM into Chinese classes. Investigation into the perceptions of learners of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL learners) regarding the use of AM in Chinese classes will inform pedagogical suggestions to guide classroom instruction. However, thus far, an extremely limited number of studies has explored this issue. By collecting survey data from 145 CFL learners who studied in 12 universities and colleges in the U.S., this study answered the following research questions:1) How did the CFL learners generally perceive the effects of AM on their Chinese learning? 2) What factors related to learner’s perception of AM were revealed in the survey data? 3) Is there significant differences in learners’ perception between the group with classroom AM learning experience and those who had not have such experience? Descriptive statistic data showed that most CFL learners had positive views on AM. Principle component analysis revealed three main factors of learner perception of AM: Learning, Motivation & Engagement, and Frustration. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOV) revealed significant differences in the factor of Learning. CFL learners with classroom experience of AM expressed stronger beliefs of AM’s positive impacts on learning and they were also more inclined to include authentic materials in their Chinese class. Pedagogical suggestions will also be discussed in this presentation.

 

The Pedagogical Value of Films in Advanced-level Chinese Language Teaching

北卡罗来纳大学教堂山分校 林佳

 

Watching movies benefits foreign language learning in many ways. This presentation investigates why and how to use movies as teaching materials in advanced-level Chinese classes. The researcher will discuss theoretical framework, instructional practice, and pedagogical design related to using contemporary Chinese films as teaching materials in language teaching. This presentation includes two parts: the linguistic and cultural values of the Chinese film in language teaching, and how to integrate movies in regular Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) classes in order to improve student language proficiency, cultural awareness, and critical thinking.

Film is a great means for integrated language training and culture study. Through watching Chinese movies, reading movie reviews, and making comments orally or in written language, students can improve their listening, reading, speaking, and writing competences in an integrated way. In addition to acquiring the colloquial conversations in movies, students can also learn some formal expressions from movie reviews and comments. Watching movies is also a good way to build contextual sensitivity while learning language. Understanding major cultural phenomena helps students construct a better understanding of China and as a result they can use language in a more culturally appropriate way.

This presentation starts with a discussion of the language abilities and competences of advanced-level CFL learners as described in the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) Proficiency Guidelines. The researcher then elaborates why it is beneficial to use Chinese movies as teaching materials after analyzing special needs and difficulties of advanced-level CFL learners. Taking CHIN 408, an advance-level CFL class offered at the University of North Carolina, as an example, the researcher provides a step-by-step demonstration on how to use movies for integrated language training. Lastly, criteria of movie selection for language teaching purpose are discussed.

 

体演文化教学法新探

——俄亥俄州立大学模式在国内汉语教学中的应用

福建师范大学海外教育学院 蔡建丰

 

近二十年来,以俄亥俄州立大学东亚语言文学系为基地,一种新兴的汉语教学法——“体演文化教学法,在美国本土逐渐繁盛起来。俄亥俄州立大学东亚语言文学系是美国中文教师学会发源地,设有迄今为止全美唯一一个中文教学法博士学位点,以著名汉学家吴伟克(Galal Walker)教授为首的教学科研团队创立了汉语作为第二语言的体演文化教学法,在汉语教学上取得了卓有成效的成绩。

中国国家汉办和俄亥俄州立大学体演文化教学团队在中国多地联合举办了多期美国中文旗舰项目汉语教学法培训班,为来自中国各地不同高校汉语教师老师提供体演文化教学法培训,通过现场观摩、学习讨论、试教实践等方式了解体演文化教学法。其中有14位参训教师接受了笔者针对培训内容所做的调查。尽管老师们对体演文化教学法都有耳目一新的印象,但对这种教学法的认可度却有所保留。调查结果显示参训教师具有以下较为一致的观点:

1体演法适合低龄、低水平学习者。

2体演法更适合文化课教学而不是其他技能课型。

3体演法难以在国内混合国籍的班级中推广。

4体演法不太适合自己所在学校的汉语教学。

为什么会有以上的共识?是因为大家对体演法的了解还不够深入全面?还是因为体演法确实不适合国内的汉语教学?本研究将解答以上问题,力求为体演文化教学法与国内汉语教学模式找到一个好的结合点。

 

An analytical research of major problem of Bilinguals for academic writing

四川大学锦江学院 周露曼

 

English, as a global language, has become an irreplaceable part of the international trade market. The last 40 years have witnessed a rapid development of English education in Chinese universities which aims to cultivate more bilingual individuals for the property of China’s economy. The English education in China has made great achievements but also exposed many problems. To illustrate, poor English writing or academic writing is going to be taken as a focus for this paper, thereby aiming to discuss and analyse specific major writing problems of bilinguals who take Chinese as first language and English as second language.

 

美国留学生汉语口语焦虑原因中的汉语语序偏误研究

---以四川大学海外教育学院短期项目生为例

四川大学 彭小曼

 

随着经济全球化和中国国际地位的日益上升,汉语在全世界得到了广泛推广,口语作为一种重要的语言技能,口语表达中的焦虑对外语学习也有着不可忽视的影响,一直以来也引起了不少国内外的关注。从偏误语体上看,已有成果大多是对书面语序偏误的研究,或是书面语与口语偏误相结合,汉语口语语序偏误的专题研究较少。

为了有目的性、针对性地对川大的美国留学生的口语学习焦虑和汉语语序偏误之间的关系进行调查分析,本文作者以四川大学海外教育学院18位短期项目生为主要调查对象,使用调查问卷、设计练习、模拟交际场景等方式来收集语料,用SPSS软件进行数据分析。在理论分析和实际调查的基础上主要进行几个问题的研究:汉语语序偏误是否会导致美国留学生汉语口语焦虑,他们有哪些汉语语序的偏误,由此提出一些减少学习焦虑的建议。

 

探析新时期美国的语言政策

四川大学美高梅游戏网址登录 任倩

 

语言政策的研究为研究美国问题提供了一个新的视角。在不同的历史时期和社会背景下,美国产生了英语独尊双语教育语言多元化等不同的语言政策,但总的来说,英语一直处于主导地位。进入新世纪后,由于国家安全威胁的增加和国际竞争的加剧,美国政府越发重视外语教育。本文把语言政策分为英语政策和外语政策两个不同的主题,分析其在不同历史时期尤其是奥巴马和特朗普政府·时期的状况,旨在归纳总结当前美国的语言政策的特点,产生的根源,以期预示美国社会未来的走向。同时,研究美国的语言政策,对于我国制定语言政策,实施语言国家也有重要的启示。

 

News Discourse Analysis of Confucius Institute: A Diachronic Corpus-Based Study of Reports on U.S. Newspapers

西南财经大学 王艳慧

 

Since the establishment of the first Confucius Institute in 2005, it has always adhere to the principle of promoting Chinese language and culture. Owing to its rapid development, it has received considerable worldwide attention. Hence, the current research is directly toward the investigation of reports which related with Confucius institute from the year of 2005-2019 on the basis of framework theory. Through searching the key word “Confucius Institute” in LexisNexis database, 180 articles constitute the self-built corpus Reports of Confucius Institute Corpus (RCIC). With the method of quantitative content analysis, the results demonstrate that the theme in terms of education of Chinese language and the cultural soft power appeared with the highest frequency, one of the explanations for this phenomenon is the increasing influence of China and national language in the world stage, especially in the United States; Concerning the total number of related reports, it is represented by the characteristics of rising-falling-rising, factors such as political factors and public policy may account for such fluctuation, for example, the 5.17 instruction; As regards the general emotional tendency, most reports on mainstream media show a positive attitude to Confucius Institute. Under the approach of qualitative investigation, the present study reveals that the reports of Confucius Institute are relatively fixed in terms of the analysis of its news schema; Additionally, the concrete differences of ideology of these two different nations are embodied by the related reports in the present study, which to a great extent can be the valid evidence of the importance of mutual understanding. As an empirical-based research, these findings may provide useful and practical insights for the interpretation of reports of Confucius Institute overseas, especially concerning how to strengthen the mutual understanding of cross-culture between China and the United States.

 

从语言规划视角看汉语在美国语言地位发展

国防科技大学国际关系学院 许戈辉

 

美国语言政策紧密围绕其国家战略,随着中国不断崛起,中美大国竞争进一步加剧,研究美国汉语语言地位具有充分的现实意义。本文从语言规划的视角,分析梳理美国汉语语言地位的发展现状以及发展脉络,梳理形成当前汉语语言地位的主要参与者角色。从语言学家Spolsky在其新著《语言管理》中的语言管理理论Language Management Theory)理论中的语言域(Domain)视角,去认识和解读如基金会、政府、华人社区、学校等规划参与者在语言管理中扮演的角色作用。


 

分论坛二:美国政治、交通研究

 

Historical Interaction of Media and Populism in U.S.

国防科技大学 章瀚夫

 

Donald Trump may represent the latest successful combination of internet-based new media and populism. New media platforms are now a political battleground. Heavy investment by election campaigns and frequent appearances by politicians verify the significant role of new media in winning support, persuasion and mobilization. If now a politician does not interact with people on social media it can be interpreted as not being close to the people. This means the presence of new media in politics being a necessity or a “normal”. The case with Trump is that he continues to use twitter, among other social media platforms, as an operational part of his administration, hence effectively making it an almost unchecked element of his power. A politician who is close to the people but who wields unchecked power sounds a lot like a populist idea. New media and populism could be a mutually enhancive combination, as new power structure can be built along internet interpersonal relationship, going around the traditional political representation process. In history, populist politicians have valued media to proliferate messages with strong emotional appeal but maybe weaker senses that fits their target audience. Although “serious” media continue to exist, new types of media are lighter and easier to use in order to acquire readership, particularly to occupy time fragments and leisure time between more serious business. It therefore leads to a question: could the lightening media become a natural propaganda tool for populism?  This study attempts to answer this question by looking at how historical populists have harnessed media, especially new kinds of media of the time. It tries to explore the following aspects: the populist preference of media, the consequence of media “lightness” and the media-related goals of populist politicians.

 

The Dynamics of Populism in the United States

美高梅游戏网址登录-电子游戏平台网站马克思主义学院 范丽丽

 

In recent years, the specter of populism has wandered in the United States. Populism not only puts pressures on political institutions, tears apart societies, but also brings huge impacts on Western democracies. Research questions will focus on the rise of populism in America, and explore the dynamics of populism from multiple perspectives. The root cause of populism is the growing economic inequality which has triggered a series of social crises. Resentment is the fuse of populism. Trump's populist campaign pushed American populism to a climax. At the same time, the new Internet media is a combustion improver of populism, and it will have spillover effects on other countries. The dynamics of populism have different effects in the United States in different periods. I will closely examine such complex and challenging factors under evolving sociopolitical environments.

 

2018年中期选举看民主党竞选策略的转变

四川大学美高梅游戏网址登录 黄思杰

 

很多学者把美国政治体系比喻为一部由总统驾驶、国会领航、联邦法院督导的列车,而中期选举则犹如一次例行的靠站检修。自特朗普执政以来,美国社会问题层出不穷,政治极化现象也愈发严重,这就使得2018年中期选举显得尤为重要。从选举结果来看,尽管民主党未能真正掀起蓝色浪潮,但他们仍成功夺回了对众议院的控制,一扫之前选举接连失败的阴霾。在2018年中期选举中,中期选举铁律特朗普的低支持率对民主党较为有利,但民主党对自身竞选策略的改变才是他们取胜的关键所在。不同于以往的选举,民主党竞选人在2018年中期选举中更加注重身份政治,试图唤起女性、少数族裔和年轻人这些传统民主党选民的支持。此外,他们一致把矛头对准饱受争议的特朗普政府,猛烈抨击其执政举措,并提出了与之相反的竞选纲领,如全民医保、减税、保护非法移民等。但值得注意的是,民主党竞选策略的转变也彰显了其内部所存在的问题。民主党激进派的崛起无疑对民主党内建制派(自由派和进步派)造成了巨大冲击,这使得民主党更难在短时间内调和党内分歧。很多民主党竞选人的竞选纲领在更大程度上只是对特朗普政府现行政策的被动反应,而非主动提出解决社会问题的方案。2018年中期选举是美国政治的重要一环,也是美国民意的一次集中表达,通过分析民主党在此次选举中竞选策略的转变,我们不仅可以更好地了解美国政治的当前发展趋势,也能更好地认识特朗普执政下的美国社会现状。

 

中期选举反映美国国内民意返潮

美高梅游戏网址登录-电子游戏平台网站马克思主义学院 孙国杰

 

当地时间2018116日,美国2018年中期选举落下帷幕。纵观此次选举,共和党以52席比47席的微弱优势超过民主党继续控制参议院多数席位,而在众议院内民主党以232席比201席的结果从共和党手中接管了众议院。可以说两党目前处于僵持阶段中,民主党政治生存环境变好,共和党虽然失去了众议院的控制权,但最终计票并没有较大差距,因此此次中选并不能视为共和党支持率的全面崩塌

同时,仅仅以来最终的选举结果我们可以获得的信息极其有限,除了众议院易主之外,美国政府内部基本没有发生任何重大的变动。不过通过观察在中期选举结果背后的更多数据,我们可以发现美国社会发生了微妙的变化。

 

特朗普政府移民政策的改革及其动因研究

四川大学美高梅游戏网址登录  吴雪敏

 

美国是一个移民之国,移民在推动美国社会发展进步的同时也带来了很多的问题。特朗普自竞选以来便拿移民政策改革,尤其是非法移民治理问题大做文章。在让美国再次伟大等口号下,特朗普政府提出了带有明显的种族主义和本土主义色彩的移民改革四大支柱,在国内国际社会中引起了广泛争议。

特朗普政府推行移民政策改革有着深刻而复杂的背景。除了自身和党派的利益考量,还包括应对人口结构的巨大变化对美国政治、经济和社会文化造成的影响和为2020年总统大选取得胜利奠定基础。本文希望通过对特朗普政府颁布的移民政策进行跟踪研究,从推行方式和内容等方面分析其改革的特点,探明其在特定时期做出相应变革的主客观原因,并据此预估其政策的前景。

 

中美贸易摩擦研究的知识图谱及热点主题解析

西安交通大学美高梅游戏网址登录 王玮 李蓓岚

 

由于中美贸易战的爆发危机,国内学者对中美关系研究尤其是中美贸易摩擦的关注度持续上升,学术成果不断涌现。因此,系统分析当前我国对中美贸易摩擦研究的总体趋势,厘清研究重点,对后续研究中美关系人文与文化差异、改善中美关系有着借鉴意义。。[方法/过程]综合运用MendeleyCitespace软件对CNKI数据库收录的421篇涉及中美贸易摩擦研究的CSSCI论文进行可视化分析,通过绘制关键词共现分析图、科研合作网络分析图、领域共现分析图等,讨论当前中美贸易摩擦研究的核心主题、热点前沿及主要研究机构。[结果/结论]基于中美贸易摩擦研究文献关键词共现分析得出,当前研究核心主题为中国应对中美贸易摩擦策略研究、特朗普政府对华发动贸易战原因分析、中美贸易摩擦对双方影响研究、中美贸易关系历史路径解析等;研究的热点前沿还呈现出时代性与民族性突出、大众化与多元化显著、致力于中国对外传播能力建设等特点。通过科研合作分析图得出,当前中美贸易摩擦研究呈现出跨学科趋势,涉及文化、社会、政治等多个方面。未来有关中美贸易摩擦研究可以结合中美文化差异及国家形象建设来开展,以加强中美间跨文化交际,促进中美关系和平稳步发展。

 

A Comparative Study

of Pragmatic Vagueness in Chinese and American Diplomatic Language

西南财经大学 伍琳燕

 

Vagueness is the inherent attribute of language. Pragmatic Vagueness is commonly regarded as a crucial strategy to achieve certain purposes in the communication. It is generally acknowledged that diplomatic language needs to convey the information precisely; however, speakers in the diplomatic occasions are expected to be polite. Therefore, diplomatic language is involved many vague expressions in that the speaker considers the Politeness Principle first and thus violating the Cooperative Principle inevitably. This thesis, based on the discourses from the press conferences of Chinese Foreign Ministry and U.S. Department of State, discusses the differences, similarities and causes of pragmatic vagueness in Chinese and American diplomatic language and its pragmatic functions under the theoretical framework of Cooperative Principle, and Politeness Principle.

The study found that, both Chinese diplomatic language and American diplomatic language violate the Cooperative Principle and observe the Politeness Principle, while Chinese diplomatic language more obviously tends to observe the maxims of the Politeness Principle. To be specific, the violations of the four maxims of the CP in Chinese and American data are roughly similar. However, the occurring times of the violation of quality, quantity and relevance as well as the observances of maxims of tact, generosity, approbation, modesty and sympathy in Chinese data are more than those in American data. Moreover, the causes of the similarities and differences can be concluded as the characteristics of diplomatic language, the different cultures and different diplomatic policies. As for the functions of pragmatic vagueness in diplomatic language, they can be summarized as being polite, evading the disagreement, withholding the information, self-protection, maintaining the friendly relationship.

Through the analyses of the press briefings of Chinese Foreign Ministry and U.S. Department of State, this comparative study of vagueness is supposed to help people understand the features and the intensions of Chinese and American diplomatic language usages from a comprehensive perspective. Besides, it may enlighten the diplomats on the apprehension and utilization of vagueness, and on the defense of the rights and interests of the countries and people concerned.

 

A Study to Reflect the Political Apathy of High School Students of Bangladesh

美高梅游戏网址登录-电子游戏平台网站马克思主义学院 Sudipto Sajol Kha

 

High school students (age 14-18) of Bangladesh are in high ground to accept the better of the state and the society due to their age and curiosity which shapes their moral. They are considered as the channel between the society and the future political culture of the state. This study shows that the minimal amount of high school students are interested in the recent political environment of Bangladesh and this creates a persistent political apathy. As a democratic country, Bangladesh has a wide range of political scopes. It is a matter of concern that Bangladesh’s very young high school students started to dislike the recent political environment. Because it is leading them to self-motivate themselves not to be involved in politics. Long term frustration over the morally poor political culture, a specific political apathy may put Bangladesh’s dynamic democracy in danger with probable weak leadership in future. Corruption, absence of credibility, lack of steps from the government and political violence really makes it hard for the high school students to decide in favor of politics. This study also tries to find out the causes behind this political apathy with relevant study data and analysis.

 


 

分论坛三:中美文学文化研究

 

薛涛诗英译与中美之间的跨文化理解研究

攀枝花学院 卢丙华

 

本文通过对比分析美国译者对唐代女诗人薛涛诗英译中产生的误解与误译以及与中国译者译作在薛涛诗英译的形式、和韵律以及文化上的差异,来探讨薛涛诗英译与中国文化的准确传播、翻译的文化误区。首先在文化视野下薛涛诗英译者的主体性研究,主要从他者操控下的女性主文翻译观和全球化视野下的文化翻译观两个角度分析中西方译者的文化主体性;从两个大的角度进行分析:第一个角度是西方译论下的国外主要英译本,如,跨文化符际翻译视角下的吉纳维美·魏莎英译本、语义翻译和交际翻译目的论下的玛丽?肯尼迪英译本以及文本功能视域下珍妮拉森涛诗英译本;第二个角度是传统译论下的国内英译本,如,三美论在许渊冲薛涛诗英译中的再现,包括意差的体现、音美的体现和的体现;信达雅一一张正则酵涛诗英译,包括”——薛涛诗中的传统文化词汇的英译,”——薛涛诗中文化典故的英译,”——薛涛诗英韵律的呈现;在此基础上探讨薛涛诗英译文化的过滤与补偿包含民俗文化的英译、专有名词英译、植物意象的英译、动物意象的英译、典故的英译。

 

Reflections on Chinese and Western Historiographies

杜肯大学 李泾

 

Both China and the West have long and rich historiographical traditions. In this paper I explore the ways in which Chinese and Western historiographies can be compared and contrasted to each other along certain thematic lines. Among the thematic issues considered are the perceived nature and patterns of the historical process; historical and cultural milieus for history writing; politics and the historical discipline; the making of the historian and the roles he plays; perceived nature and patterns of the historical process; purpose and objectivity in historical study; historical agency; as well as political and sociocultural history. The paper will also consider the pedagogical implications of the some of the issues identified above to reflect on studying and teaching historiography in a cross-cultural environment.

 

An Analysis of A Streetcar Named Desire

from the Perspective of Female Body and Femininity

东北师范大学 白雨卉

 

In 1947, the American playwright Tennessee Williams published his masterpiece play A Streetcar Named Desire. The portrayal of the women in the play can be seen to be tragic. In the patriarchal society, women have only the right to be chosen, to be seen as angels or monsters. In such a society of unilateral ‘sexuality’ prevalence, women are imprisoned in cages, gradually strip off the nature of monsters. This play, by focusing on male violence against the female body, discipline, and bullying, shows the trauma experienced in the society dominated by the male voice. Nonetheless, although the male voice attaches derogation on female body and ego, women can still use their awakening body and identity to resist to gain the recognition of their own subjective consciousness.

 

A Postcolonial Perspective on Goldblatt’s Translation:

The Case of Life and Death Are Wearing Me Out

西南财经大学 李果

 

This article ‘A Postcolonial Perspective on Goldblatt’s Translation: The Case of Life and Death Are Wearing Me Out’ explores Howard Goldbatt’s translation of Chinese literature from the perspective of postcolonial theory. Goldblatt is an outstanding American Sinologist and the most productive translator of Chinese literatures who started his translation in 1978, and during the forty years he had translated over 60 works of more than 30 Chinese writers. He is famous for tranlasting The Red Sorghum, which won the 2012 Nobel Prize for Literature. Taking examples of his translation of Mo Yan’s Life and Death Are Wearing Me Out, the ideas that Goldblatt advanced in his essays, speeches and interviews, as well as some Chinese critics, professors and writers who concern self-colonialism, it analyses postcolonialism with the challenging concepts of “hybridity”, postcolonial translation theory and self-colonization; Goldblatt’s translation thoughts and his attitudes towards China and Chinese literature; as well as his translation strategies such as domestication and foreignization. This paper also discusses the previous views on the core issues of “faithfulness” and “unfaithfulness” in translation as well as the misunderstanding of two different cultures between China and America which occurs in literature translation. Goldblatt insists that ‘I translate, so I am’. He holds a passion for Chinese literature and he adores Chinese writers such as Mo Yan and Xiao Hong. Those findings may contribute to the mutual comprehension, frequent communication and active interaction between Chinese culture and American culture, and provide valuable insights for the future research of Chinese literature translation, especially concerning how great a role Howard Goldblatt has played in the process of Chinese literature “walking-out” and how does he function as a bridge across the cultures of two powers.

 

Cultural Default and its Translation Compensation Strategies from the Perspective of Relevance Theory—A Case Study of the Yao Naiqiang’ Version of the Scarlett Letter

西南财经大学  李艳

 

As people from the same cultural background will normally reach a consensus to some tacit information in their culture, writers will omit some self-evident background knowledge or cultural common sense to improve communication efficiency when writing literary works, the phenomenon of which is called cultural default. However, in the process of literary translation, if the cultural default cannot be properly and effectively handled and compensated, it will cause difficulties for foreign target readers to understand the original text, thus hindering cross-cultural communication. Therefore, relevance theory, the emerging theory with cognition and communication as its core, shed new light on the rendering of cultural default.

Relevance translation theory is put forward by Gutt, who regards translation as a kind of verbal communicative behavior and it includes the double ostensive-inferential process among the author, the translator and the readers. Therefore the translator has the responsibility of inferring the informative intention and representing it clearly for target readers.

The Scarlett Letter, a masterpiece of the American novelist Nathaniel Hawthorne, has been hailed as one of the most important books in the history of American romantic literature. Although the novel is very popular among scholars at home and abroad, few of them have analyzed the cultural default compensation strategies the translation versions employed. Therefore, based on the relevance translation theory, this paper takes the Chinese version of the Scarlett Letter by Yao Naiqiang, whose version has long been acclaimed as an authoritative translated texts in China, as a case study to explore the translator’s strategy of compensating cultural default. By comparing the examples of cultural default element in the Scarlett Letter with Yao’s translation version, the paper analyzes what compensation strategies of Yao has employed and how does he manages to deal with the cultural default based on the relevance theory. This paper finds that the translator has mainly adopted such translation strategies as literal translation, literal translation with footnotes, transliteration with footnotes, contextual amplification, adaptation, as well as emission to compensate the cultural default in the Chinese version.

The author employs the relevance theory to analyze the compensation strategies of cultural default in the Scarlett Letter, aiming to prove that relevance theory is powerfully interpretable in tackling the cultural phenomenon in the literary works. In addition, this paper offers a good comprehension to the relevance theory and provides some effective compensation strategies for cultural default to gap the cultural misunderstandings and promote the cultural exchanges between countries.

 

On Edna Pontellier’s Freedom-pursing in Kate Chopin’s The Awakening Through Chuang Tzu’s Thoughts of Freedom

四川大学 王钰

 

Kate Chopin is a well-known American writer. The Awakening is her representative work and also a classic of feminist literature. The previous studies mainly look into feminist perspective or analysis of the deconstruction and construction of the heroine's self-awareness, subjective consciousness and even sexual consciousness, but only a few of them explore Edna Pontellier’s experience of freedom-pursing. Furthermore, for most critics the issues seem to be whether Edna’s suicide should be read as failure, tragedy, or triumph. It seems to me that the appropriate question to ask about Edna’s is not whether her behavior is justified, but what is revealed in it. On the basis of Chuang Tzu’s thoughts of freedom, this thesis would explore Edna’s experience of the pursuit of freedom as well as her suicide. There are five parts in this thesis. Part One is an introduction to the previous studies on The Awakening and the research purposes and structure of the thesis. Part Two outlines Chuang Tzu’s thoughts on freedom, covering the undertaker of freedom—three ideal personality and the presentation of freedom. Part Three focuses on Edna’s process of freedom- pursing in accordance with Chuang Tzu’s thoughts on freedom, including her liberation from social fame, transcendence from material merit and return to original self. Part Four discusses Edna’s final death as a state of perplexity of the contradiction between the oppression of patriarchal society and the spiritual freedom of self-awakening. Part Five is a conclusion to the thesis.

 

A Post-Colonial Perspective on the Issue of Identity in The Joy Luck Club

西南财经大学 吴黄梅

 

Amy Tan as an eminent Chinese-American female writer, has contributed a great deal to the differential between Chinese culture and American culture. The Joy Luck Club is the first masterpiece of Amy Tan. As a matter of fact, the name The Joy Luck Club was originated from a mahjong-playing club by immigrant Chinese mothers. It mainly elaborates the relationship between four pairs of mothers and daughters caused by their collision and compatibility of two different cultures. Due to the collision of the two cultures, they struggle for their respective cultural identity. This essay aims to explore their individual issue of identity of both Chinese mothers and American daughters, from the perspective of post-colonialism. In the mixed context of multi-culture, daughters and mothers are confused about it. Post-colonialism, as one of the most noticeable schools of cultural criticism at the turn of century, deserved to be delved into. This paper reveals that four mothers have strong personality with traditional Chinese values, while daughters are regarded as marginal person. Mothers are filled with characteristics of traditional Chinese women and as well as the Chinese mothers. To the contrary, daughters, living in a melting-pot, are confused about their own identity. However, these findings show that in such a converged environment, people are still strongly conscious about their own identity. This paper shed light on the discussion on difference between Chinese culture and American culture, so as to benefit intercultural communication. What is more, it can provide a significant reference for the future literature research on The Joy Luck Club.

 

The Embodiment of the Local Culture in Goldblatt’s Translation of Red Sorghum

西南财经大学 谢叶

 

Translation exists whenever there is cultural communication. Since the reform and opening-up, China has absorbed many works from the western world, but exported a few local literary works. Howard Goldblatt, an American translator, has made a great contribution to the spreading of Chinese works, especially the works written by Mo Yan. The translations of Goldblatt help Mo a lot to win Nobel Prize. In his translation, Goldblatt makes use of his comprehensive knowledge of Chinese tradition to balance the smoothness of reading and essence of novel. This paper tries to summarize how Goldblatt translates local cultural elements in Red Sorghum. In doing so, some useful insights for managing cultural differences between China and America are expected.

 

垮掉的一代的参禅之路——试读凯鲁亚克笔下的寒山子

四川大学美高梅游戏网址登录 熊军

 

如果将20世纪60年代美国垮掉的一代运动定义为一场狄奥尼索斯式的狂欢,那么可以说这只是窥其表面罢了。在垮掉派作家反叛的面具之下,深刻烙印着的是以禅宗思想为主体的东方哲学。垮掉的一代身体力行地进行着禅宗实践,企图通过静坐与冥想等方式来打破美国社会的纸醉金迷,重建个人的精神完整。而在这一众叛逆的东方学徒之间,凯鲁亚克对于禅宗思想的实践最为亮眼,从《在路上》到《达摩流浪者》,凯鲁亚克实现了从生命永恒意识到佛性本真的超越,而这一超越集中体现在其对于中国禅宗诗人寒山子的解读之中。寒山子之于凯鲁亚克,正如盗天火的普罗米修斯之于人类,是其精神困境的希望所在。凯鲁亚克在其作品《达摩流浪者》中对寒山子诗句的多处引用,不仅可以看做是东方传统文学在大洋彼岸的异地生根,也是其追求精神超越的具体实践。但需要注意的是,以凯鲁亚克为代表的垮掉的一代对于禅宗思想的学习绝非简单的生搬硬套,而是融入了美国式的精神内核,形成了颇富美国特色的垮掉禅

分论坛四:中美学科与跨文化研究

 

Teaching English Literature in America: A Chinese Professor’s Perspective

普渡大学 林力丹

 

How often do you come across a foreign professor or an English-speaking professor teaching Chinese literature in a Chinese college classroom? Probably not often or even never. Why? Because that is just how things are done in China. How often do you come across a Chinese professor teaching English literature in American college classroom? Probably not often but NOT never. This means that there are a few, though not many, Chinese professors teaching English literature in American college classroom. Luckily, I am one of them. People have asked me: how can you teach English literature to American students? How do they react to you as a professor?  Do they respect you? Do you like what you do? My paper presentation will share my experience teaching English literature in the English Department at Purdue University Fort Wayne, USA, including the challenges I have gone through.

 

跨文化视域下的大学生中美德俄文化价值观比较研究

上海第二工业大学文理学部美高梅游戏网址登录 王录

 

文化价值观即人们对各种文化现象和文化行为的看法与态度。大学生的文化价值观可以折射出该群体的价值取向。基于有关文化价值观的理论,本文通过对S大学理工科大学生(n.=88)关于中美德俄四国文化价值观的问卷调研发现,大学生对于德国和俄国的文化价值观认识普遍比较欠缺,而对于中美文化价值观的认识存在着显著差异性(p0.05)。研究对于从跨文化视角了解大学生的文化价值观认知,增强其对于文化差异的敏感性,提高其对于中国文化的自信从而不断提升其跨文化交际能力,减少和避免跨文化交际中的误解与冲突具有重要意义。

 

From a Critical Reflection on Current Chinese Studies to a Self-Reflexive and Dialogical Chinese Studies

里士满大学 高耿松

 

Since the poststructuralist and postmodernist theories were widely applied to Chinese studies in the West in late 1980s, basic concepts and assumptions of traditional sinology and the Cold War-style Chinese studies as an area studies have been contested.  While this poststructuralist and postmodern approach characterized by Rey Chow as “fundamental problematization of referentiality” has expanded the boundaries of Chinese studies by deconstructing the essentialist and monolithic understandings of Chinese ethnicity, nationality and language, it also incurs criticisms from two opposite directions. The more theory-minded China scholars (Gloria Davies, Elaine Jeffreys, etc.) criticize the existing Chinese studies for being still too much concerned with producing knowledge about China to make any substantial contributions to broader disciplinary knowledge and theoretical debate. By contrast, the more area-based China scholars (Mingdong Gu, Philips Huang, etc.) accuse existing Chinese studies of misusing western theories to do justice to the complexity of Chinese history, experience and text. What both the theory-minded China scholars and the area-based China scholars are lacking is a respectful listening and a productive dialogue between their respective research approaches. To address the limits and bridge the gaps between the seemingly contrastive theory-oriented Chinese studies and the area-based Chinese studies, this presentation proposes a self-reflexive and dialogical Chinese studies. Such a self-reflexive and dialogical approach needs the two existing distinctive Chinese studies models not only to learn from each other specific concepts and theses, but also to use the other’s fundamental assumption and problematic to self-reflexively challenge and enrich one’s own to form a more inclusive and more integrative theoretical framework, which can produce both well-informed knowledge about China and make notable contributions to theoretical debate and disciplinary advancement. 

 

跨文化语境中的比尔·波特与中国文化

——以《空谷幽兰寻访现代中国隐士》为例

四川大学文学与新闻学院 邓凤鸣

 

美国翻译家、汉学家比尔·波特曾凭借《空谷幽兰寻访现代中国隐士》在国内外引发对隐士的热议潮流。多年以来,他凭借对中国文化的满腔热情学习中文,进行了大量的诗歌、佛教典籍的英语翻译,更是坚持用亲身游历、寻访的方式用文字和图片记录他亲历的中国文化、风土人情。在比较文学与跨文化研究视域下细读《空谷幽兰》,本文发现了比尔·波特对中国文化,尤其是古代文化的独特态度:比尔·波特超越了很多外国作家或因异国情调的他者的相异性魅力,或因对本土文化的质疑和对对社会弊病根治的渴望,而以实用主义倾向对中国文化进行主动地、创造性地、契合时代和自身需求的采用,而是通过对东西方经典文献、考古发现的详细梳理,似王国维二重证据法之针对性,还原远游旅程的真实场景,探问内化于中国传统文化、潜藏于中国人内心的隐士情节。对于比尔·波特笔下的中国现代隐士形象剖析,本文认为不必动辄上升至东西双方看与被看的二元对立,也无需拘泥于因一般哲学意义上的他者差异带来的具体层面的西方文化中作为他者的中国文化形象,应该从跨文化语境中比较文学命题的角度重视对比尔·波特与中国文化关系的探索。

 

记忆?认同?叙事——论严歌苓旅美期间的历史题材小说创作

中山大学中文系(珠海) 李燕英

 

旅美期间的严歌苓创作了《扶桑》、《人寰》、《无出路咖啡馆》、《橙血》、《魔旦》等带有历史题材性质的小说,与之前相比,受移民记忆和经验的程度较深,当然亦有对故国历史的回望,这促使她去关注那些被时光碎片所掩埋和遗忘的华人移民历史,这其中既掺杂着她移民美国期间的现实经验和感悟,又带有她对故国记忆的眷恋与反思。试图以文学创作的方式建立起对母国和旅居国家的双重认同,严歌苓旅美期间历史题材性质的小说创作显示出复杂多元的文化与记忆如何有效整合于个人的记忆和经验,也表明集体认同与个人记忆的复杂纠缠以及印象深刻的个人记忆在创作中所发挥的作用。跨越现实和过往的双层时空的叙事结构安排,对带有鲜明文化记忆特性的空间场所的选择,叙事视角的灵活运用,这些叙事层面的独有策略是严歌苓相比其他作家的与众不同之处,与她在美国期间接受的创意写作训练有着较大的关联,同样是她的作品被更多人接受和认可的缘由之一。除此之外,契合集体记忆的内容表述和情节安排,也是其作品产生广泛影响的原因,对其中的利弊得失人们要区别对待冷静分析。

 

The Dissemination and Influence of American Musicals in China

四川大学 陈之童

 

The musical is a comprehensive theatrical performance art that integrates music, dance, dialogues, performances and other forms, which has a history of more than 100 years. As an important part of American culture, American musicals have been influential in China since they were first introduced into China in 1987, after more than 30 years of dissemination.

Taking the Broadway classic musicals as an example, the author of this thesis discusses the following five aspects: an introduction of American musicals represented by Broadway, the 30-year history of American musicals spreading in China, the influence of American musicals on Chinese musicals, the impact and integration of Chinese culture and American culture represented by American musicals, the problems faced by Chinese musicals and the solutions. It is helpful to promote intercultural communication between China and the United States by exploring the collision and integration of Sino-US cultural exchanges through the dissemination and influence of a unique cultural carrier – American musicals in China.

 

美国公路文学在中国的接受元素简析

——以《在路上》与《万里任禅游》为例

四川大学 李长寅

 

作为美国文学中的一种形式,公路文学作品里讲述了主人公旅途中遇到的人、发生的故事,与此相伴的还有他们的心路历程。虽然中西方存在文化背景差异,但是这些作品以路途反映人生、社会为特色,因此也同样受到中国读者的追捧。本文以杰克?凯鲁亚克的《在路上》和罗伯特?M?波西格的《万里任禅游》的社会背景,思想文化以及在中国的影响为研究对象,分析作品中与中国传统文化相切合的因素,从而找到该两部文学作品被中国读者接受的原因。

本文主要由四部分构成,第一节简要谈读者耳熟能详的美国公路文学作品,介绍《在路上》和《万里任禅游》的内容大要,通过其相似的时代背景建立起两部作品之间的联系。第二节通过分析《在路上》与《万里任禅游》的文本说明两部小说中体现的中国传统文化和心理,本节包含三个分论点,即作品中的禅宗思想与老子和庄子的思想相契合;作品中提倡的文化多样性与春秋战国时期百家争鸣的现象不谋而合;作品中的崇尚科学与庄子的思想以及当代我国价值观一致;作品中主人公之间流露的情感符合中国忠义孝的伦理纲常。第三节对比小说中的社会运动与中国社会转型,升华小说引起中国读者思考的原因。最后一节为结语,总结该两部小说在中国的影响及意义。

本研究注重用文本说话,笔者希望通过简析这两部公路文学作品,引起中国更多读者对这类型小说的关注,拓宽对公路文学在中国的研究视野。

 

 

试析迪士尼动画《花木兰》中的中美文化碰撞与融合

四川大学美高梅游戏网址登录 周俊宏

 

《花木兰》是1998年美国迪士尼公司根据我国南北朝时期民歌《木兰诗》改编而成的动画电影,该影片一经放映就引起了海内外热议。迪士尼公司将进一步推出《花木兰》真人版电影,预计于2020年上映。电影作为大众流行文化的一种重要的媒介在传播本国意识形态与思想价值观念方面具有潜移默化的作用。由于中美两国在历史和传统、观念和文化上有着深刻差异,《花木兰》在吸取并保留了《木兰诗》中的部分中国文化与元素之外,承载着与美国文化相契合的精神内涵与观念主题。如此看来,《花木兰》既体现了中美文化之间的交流与融合,又体现了两国在价值观等方面的差异。

本文将两个文本对比,试图探索改编后的《花木兰》在哪些具体的方面体现着中美文化的碰撞与交融。本文通过追溯历史,从主流价值观和文化根基两方面探讨两国文化发生碰撞的缘由;另外,从时代发展潮流和两国文化自身的包容性等方面分析中美文化日益交融的缘由。《花木兰》中体现的不是单纯的中国文化,也不是纯美国文化,而是两种文化融合之下的新文本,这预示着中美文化交流的进步。在全球化的当代,文化边界开始模糊,文化多元化发展成为了时代的主旋律,各国各类文化互学互鉴,相互影响。中美文化只有在碰撞和冲突中求同存异,才能实现更加有效的交流和学习,达到一种基于理解的共处,而这种平衡的状态将为中美关系奠定坚实的文化基础。

 

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